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What is a Hammer Toe?

A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe is bent upward at the toe’s middle joint, resembling a hammer. The bent portion may rub against the shoe causing pain, irritation and develop corns. 

What are the Causes of Hammer Toe?

This condition is caused by wearing shoes that are too tight or narrow near the toes, when the second toe is larger than the first, and as a complication of arthritis and certain neuromuscular conditions.

What are the Treatment Options for Hammer Toe?

A hammertoe in the early stages is flexible and may be treated by conservative measures such as strapping, padding and wearing appropriate footwear. 

In more severe cases and when conservative treatment does not help, surgical correction is indicated. Surgery may include a tendon transfer procedure where a tendon is rearranged from the lower side of the toe to the top, to pull the bent joint down and straighten the toe. 

Stiff or fixed hammertoes may be corrected by joint resection or joint fusion (permanent straightening of the toe), which involves cutting tendons and ligaments of the joint and removing part of the bone to help straighten the joint. The straightened toe is held by pins for 3-4 weeks following surgery. Hammertoe correction is usually performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. 

What can be Expected Post Operation?

There may be some swelling, redness, and stiffness following surgery. A special shoe may be ordered to help with walking. 

What are the Risks and Complications of Hammertoe Surgery?

As with any surgical procedure, hammertoe correction may be associated with some risks including infection, bleeding, nerve injury or poor alignment of the toe.

  • American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery
  • Sky Ridge Medical Center